AllAboutShale.com

 

WHAT IS HYDRAULIC FRACTURING? PART B

Emanuel Martin

In the first part of “Introduction to hydraulic fracturing" we've developed: What is hydraulic fracturing?, Which is the operation principle?, Operation of hydraulic fracturing, What form and direction can take the fracture?, Fracture orientation, Hydraulic fracture design, Selection between vertical, horizontal and multi-wells pad and Fracture fluid. Now we're going to develop:

PROPPANT:

 

 

The proppant is a component of main importance in this kind of treatment since it's responsible for maintaining the  fracture open and provide a path of high conductivity for that the hydrocarbons flow  inside of the well (wellbore).  As result its correct choice is decisive for the well productivity in the long and short term. Currently there are a great variety of proppants being the sand the most used due to its low cost and abundance, but according to the features of the formation and depth of the same can also be used  resin coated sand and special ceramics.

Physical properties of proppant:

 

1-Proppant strength: measurement of the resistance to rupture by compression (crushing)

2- Grain size: The grain size is linked to the permeability resulting of the fracture, to greater grain size greater permeability but greater difficulties for transport it and greater possibilities of crushing it.

3-Sphericity: the sphericity improves the distribution of  loads and stresses.

4-Quality: The quality is measured in terms of the impurity degree  of the proppant, increasing their quality by decreasing the impurities degree, as these impact negatively on the fracture conductivity.

5-Proppant density: low density proppant facilitates its transport toward the inside of the fracture.

Typicall sand used in hydraulic fracturing treatment as a proppant. Allaboutshale.com, shale handbook, about shale

Figure 1: Typicall sand used in hydraulic fracturing treatment as a proppant.

 

As the proppant properties improve by increasing the price, for its choice  is made an analysis of costs and benefits searching a  compromise solution between the investment required and the  technical performance of the same.

 

 

Shown below is the proppant pyramid of conductivity.

Proppant used in hydraullic fracturing, ceramic, resin coated sand and sand. Allaboutshale.com, shale handbook.

Figure 2: Proppant conductivity pyramid,  source: Saldungaray and Palisch 2012.

 

Today is common use of 30/50 and 40/70 sand and resin-coated sand, 40/80 ceramics, and 100-mesh sands of various gradations.

 

 

HYDRAULIC FRACTURING EQUIPMENT

 

 

The surface equipment for the hydraulic fracturing is formed by a large number of equipments that are used intensively during a period of time from hours to months depending on the number of fractures to make and wells to stimulate.

 

This is constituted by: acidification unit, chemical additive unit, fracturing blenders, fracturing pumps, hydration systems, pumps for energized, iron truck, Data Acquisition & Control Centers (VAN), manifolds, wellhead and several equipment of transport, storage and delivery of proppant.

Michigan Department of Environmental Quality website. Slurry blender, pump truck, proppant, van, Wellhead, Allaboutshale.com, shale handbook.

Figure 3: Hydraulic fracturing equipment,  source: Michigan Department of Environmental Quality.

Manifolds: the manifolds used are typically 7-1/16", 5-1/8", 4-1/16" of diameters with connections flanged and maximum work pressures of 15000psi (usually).

 

Wellhead: is the tool through which the fluid enters  to the well and is connected to the outputs of high pressure pumps. It's designed to withstand high pressures that are determined in advance for each treatment.

 

Chemical Additive Unit: a chemical additive unit to hold and deliver each chemical in controllable quantities in order to blend the fracturing fluid.

 

Hydration unit: the hydration unit is responsible of hydrating the polymers and chemicals before being sent to the blender. It generally has a residence time of five minutes.

The hydration unit is responsible of hydrating the polymers and chemicals before being sent to the blender. It generally has a residence time of

Figure 4: Hydration unit, source: Trican Well Service, www.tricanwellservice.com

 

Fracturing Blender: Is the responsible of mix the chemicals, polymers and the proppant with the fracture fluid in specific quantities before being sent to the high-pressure pumps. In order to optimize its performance in large operations are used two blenders working in parallel.

Is the responsible of mix the chemicals, polymers and the proppant with the fracture fluid in specific quantities before being sent to the high-

Figure 5: Slurry Blender, source: Trican Well Service, www.tricanwellservice.com

 

Fracturing pumps: to the hydraulic fracturing is used  pumps of high pressure and high flow rate, normally triplex or quintuplex, with power ranging from the 1300bhp to 2000bhp each one, being normal to use between 10 to 20 pumps during the fracture operation reaching  pressures  of 15000 PSI and flow rates greater than 100 barrels per minute.

to the hydraulic fracturing is used  pumps of high pressure and high flow rate, normally triplex or quintuplex, with power ranging from the 1300

Figure 6: Fracturing pump, source: Trican Well Service, www.tricanwellservice.com

 

Iron truck: used for transporting and rigging-up the high-pressure lines or “iron” that use manifolds to connect the various components of the fracturing spread and wellhead

 

Data acquisition & control centers (VAN): the unit of data acquisition and control center has modern computers from where it is monitored, recorded, controlled and change all the parameters of the operation in each phase of the fracture treatment.

the unit of data acquisition and control center has modern computers from where it is monitored, recorded, controlled and change all the paramet

Figure 7: Data acquisition & control center, source: Trican Well Service, www.tricanwellservice.com

 

 

OPERATION MONITORING IN REAL TIME.

Due to the importance of fracture treatment and its high cost the operation is monitored in real-time to ensure its successful realization.

 

The parameters monitored are those who determine and allow modify the dimension, extension and geometry of the fracture produced. Among them are the viscosity of the fracturing fluid, proppant concentration, proppant rate, slurry rate, fluid rate and surface injection pressure.

parameters monitored are the viscosity of the fracturing fluid, proppant concentration, proppant rate, slurry rate, fluid rate and surface injec

Figure 8: operators working during a treatment inside de VAN.

 

The values of these parameters have been calculated previously during the fracture design and any significant variation of these variables during the operation with the calculated previously must be analyzed and corrected immediately if it necessary.

Slurry rate, Blender Density and Pressure vs Time. Hydraullic fracturing. Allaboutshale.com, Emanuel Martin

Figure 9: Typical graph of Slurry rate, Blender Density and Treatment Pressure vs. time during an stage of hydraulic fracturing.

 

Together with them are often carried out three-dimensional maps of seismic induced or micro frac that allow to have an immediate view of the fracture growth in the formation helping to control, run and optimize the process.

INDUCED SEISMICITY

 

 

The seismicity induced is any vibration of the Earth generated by the activity human. When hydraulic fracturing starts the rock breaks and releases a small amount of energy that can be registered by ultrasensitive geophones located in a nearby well (monitoring well) and be processed by specialized software to determine the place and the exact depth in which was generated such release of energy.

Microseismic monitoring of a hydraulic fracture stimulation. Image courtesy of John Logel."

Figure 10: microseismic monitoring of a hydraulic fracture stimulation. Image courtesy of John Logel.

 

The growth and extension of the fracture continuous releasing small amounts of energy allowing the software to calculate the azimuth, vertical extension and complexity that is taking the fracture. This information is shown in real time to operators through a three-dimensional map. This helps to control in optimal way the operation and avoid that the fracture is spread out of the interest formation.

 

All this makes of vital importance to use the induced seismicity in new shale plays during the hydraulic fracturing, allowing know the real behavior of the fracture and calibrating the geomechanics parameters of the software with the information obtained. The obtaining of such parameters together with the software calibration help to  understand better the behavior of the formation allowing design the following fractures with greater precision.

use the induced seismicity in new shale plays during the hydraulic fracturing, allowing know the real behavior of the fracture and calibrating

Figure 11: three-dimensional map obtained by induced seismicity during a hydraulic fracturing. Source: ESG Solutions.

 

 

GROUNDWATER PROTECTION

There are basically two possible ways to contaminate an aquifer and these are by filtering of chemicals spilled from the surface (it allows to be remedied before reaching the aquifer) and/or by the introduction of fluids or contaminants from the same aquifer (fast pollution of high risk) either by through an extraction well of fresh water or by a well that goes to a greater depth through the aquifer without having the correct insulation with the same.

 

In the first case to protect the aquifer of drilling fluids and fracture fluids spilled from the surface these are treated under procedures established in the legal regulations in force in each country that clearly set out that way must be handled the same, the tools that should be used and the contingency actions to carry out in the event of a possible spill.

There are basically two possible ways to contaminate an aquifer and these are by filtering of chemicals spilled from the surface

Figure 12: Scheme showing how the groundwater is contaminated in the real life. Source: U.S.E.P.A.

 

Before the  fracture process starts  the water stored in the location is fresh water so that a possible spill of the same would not produce pollution whatsoever, later when the fracture  treatment has finished part of the pumped water is returned from the fractures to the surface with dissolved salts, hydrocarbons and in some cases with heavy metals.  From this moment the processing and handling of the same requires greater attention and for its final disposal  the legal regulations require to follow one of these procedures: be treated and reused in future fractures (APACHE has obtained good results reducing the volume of fresh water used and the operation costs, saving near $1.15 billion in the long term) or in the treatment of secondary recovery, be treated in purification facilities of water to remove their contaminants and be returned to the surface and/or be introduced into a disposal wells enabled for this purpose.

In the second case, the situation of greater risk for the aquifer security, are followed government regulations for the wells construction, which seek to eliminate any possibility of contamination and are similar between conventional and non-conventional wells. In order to gain a better understanding of the way in which the aquifers are protected during the drilling and useful life of the well we will briefly analyze its construction.

WELL CONSTRUCTION

 

 

Once the position and the design of the well have been determined and have been obtained the permissions required for its construction is begun with the conditioning of the location where will be located the drilling equipment. Then starts the drilling following a program previously designed that we will divide into three parts: groundwater protection, insulation of the productive formation and fracture treatment.

Then starts the drilling following a program previously designed that we will divide into three parts: groundwater protection, insulation of the

1-Groundwater protection (First Part):  Is drilled few meters and is installed a steel piping called conductor pipe and it's cemented up to the surface with the purpose of isolate the shallow groundwater and that the unconsolidated materials  fall down inside the wellbore.

 

Subsequently is drilled up to the first formation consolidated by below of the last aquifer in the zone (depth that is usually regulated by government entities) and is installed a second casing that is also cemented to the surface. This second pipe is often called surface casing, or security casing and meets two important functions: first is to isolate and protect the groundwaters of the region and the second is to provide a solid installation where to place the Blowout Prevention (BOP). This valve is of vital importance for the safety of the equipment and the environment since it is responsible for controlling the well in case of blowout (safety valve used to "prevent" the uncontrolled flow of liquids and gases during well drilling operations). Therefore before continuing with the well drilling is made a pressure test to check the casing integrity and it runs a log inside the casing (CBL-VDL) to check the cement quality with the purpose of ensuring the groundwater protection.

We can see then that the aquifers of the area during the fracture operation and subsequent well productive life is protected by one or two

2-Insulation of the productive formation (Second Part): Is drilled until reach the depth of interest being able to use one or more intermediates casing at different depths if it's required  by the characteristics of the area to drill (need to isolate formations with circulation loss, or that they don't withstand the hydrostatic pressure generated by the drilling fluid and they would be fractured). The last casing installed is known as production casing and is cemented to isolate the productive formation of the other formations.

3-hydraulic fracturing  (third part): is the stage of the well completion where, in this case,  it is stimulated by hydraulic fracturing.

 

We can see then that the aquifers of the area during the fracture operation and subsequent well productive life is protected by one or two annulus of cement and at least two steel pipes, making impossible the contact of fluids that circulate through the well with the water of the aquifers.

 

 

LAWS AND REGULATIONS

 

 

The development and production of the shale plays as of conventional field are performed under a complex network of laws and regulations that govern each stage of the operation in order to minimize the environmental impact and make the hydrocarbons production a safe industry  for the society and the environment.

Due to this in each country to be able to drill a new well and make a fracture treatment must be presented to government entities of each region a drilling permit application where are included extensive analysis of environmental impact, drilling and fracture program, chemical composition of drilling fluid, chemical composition of fracture fluid, gases emission into the atmosphere, treatment of waste generated by the operation and others. This application is analyzed by the relevant entities and must be approved by these organizations to carry out the construction of the well and subsequent fracture treatment.

Nygaard, 2013. Examples of Federal and Pennsylvania State regulations driving reliable well construction and operation in the Marcellus Play

Figure 13: Examples of Federal and Pennsylvania State regulations driving reliable well construction and operation in the Marcellus Play. Source: Nygaard, 2013.

 

In the United States for example the shale industry is regulated by federal, state and local laws and regulations. Being the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) the responsible entity at the federal level of establish the laws and regulate the fluids injection below the surface (including solids, liquids and gases), under the SDWA, EPA sets standards for drinking water quality and with its partners implements various technical and financial programs to ensure drinking water safety. Whereas the development on federally owned land is managed primarily by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), which is part of the Department of the Interior, and the U.S. Forest Service, which is part of the Department of Agriculture. In addition, each State has one or more regulatory agency that work together with the other organizations and these establish the local laws and regulations for its development.

 

 

CONCLUSIONS:

 

 

Hydraulic fracturing account with 69 years of trajectory in the oil industry through which it has been shown to be a safe  and useful tool in a large field of applications being its use indispensable for the development of the unconventional fields.

 

Its use in massive form doesn't imply a greater risk to the environment and the regional groundwaters since the possibilities of their contamination are similar between conventional and unconventional wells, being the determining factor for their protection a good cementation and quality of the  surface casing. Also the water volumes used in such treatments (to develop a whole shale play) don't reach to overcome, in the best of the case, to the 10% of the water used in other industries in the same region. All this together with the progress in the legal regulations in force in each country have managed to protect and control the gases emission, the noise emission and the uses of the chemical substances making the shale industry an industry friendly for the nature.

Chesapeake Energy Corporation, 2008. Allaboutshale.com shale handbook

Figure 14: Insulation used to deaden noise from drilling operations. Source: Chesapeake Energy Corporation, 2008.

 

In addition the hydraulic fracturing is the well stimulation technique more important in the oil industry since it has increased the world reserves estimated of oil and gas at 11% and 47% respectively, and it reached in 2015 a global market of 42,23billion dollars that will be duplicate to 81,10billion dollars for the 2024 according to the studies made by Grand View Research, Inc.

 

 

Author: Emanuel Martin, Petroleum Engineer

 

 

Written by the author:

 

  1. BARNETT TECHNICAL INFORMATION
  2. Eagle Ford Shale Geological Review
  3. WHAT IS A SHALE?
  4. WHAT IS HYDRAULIC FRACTURING?
  5. WHERE IS THE GAS STORED?
  6. HOW TO EVALUATE A SHALE PLAY?
  7. FLOW MECHANICS IN SHALE GAS
  8. EXCEL WORKSHEET TO CALCULATE THE PERMEABILITY IN SHALE GAS FIELDS
  9. BEHAVIOR OF ARPS EQUATION IN SHALE PLAYS
  10. U.S. Dry Shale Gas Production
  11. U.S. Tight Oil Production
  12. Argentina Shale Production

 

 

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

Trican Well Service: www.tricanwellservice.com

Grand View Research, INC. http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/hydraulic-fracturing-market-to-reach-8110-billion-by-2024-grand-view-research-inc-579926901.html

 

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) https://www.epa.gov/regulatory-information-sector/oil-and-gas-extraction-sector-naics-211

 

Regulation of Oil and Gas Construction Activities, U.S. ENVTL. PROT. AGENCY,

http://cfpub.epa.gov/npdes/stormwater/oilgas.cfm

 

Spill Prevention, Control and Countermeasure Plans (SPCC), ENVTL. PROT. AGENCY,

http://www.epa.gov/region5oil/plan/spcc.html

 

Summary of the Clean Air Act, ENVTL. PROT. AGENCY, http://www.epa.gov/lawsregs/laws/caa.html

 

Community Energy Central, http://community.energycentral.com/community/generation/usa-hydraulic-fracturing-technology-evolves-and-improves

Nygaard, 2013, “Shale Development: Understanding and Mitigating Risks Associated with Well Construction and Hydraulic Fracturing,” NRC Workshop, Washington, D.C

 

https://www.esgsolutions.com/technical-resources/microseismic-knowledgebase/microseismic-event-location

ProPublica, 2008. https://www.propublica.org/special/hydraulic-fracturing-national

Department of Energy (USA), 2009. Modern Shale Gas Development in the US: A Primer.

Hydraulic Fracturing or ‘Fracking’: A Short Summary of Current Knowledge and Potential Environmental Impacts. Author: Dr. Dave Healy, United Kingdom, July 2012.

 

HYDRAULIC FRACTURING 101. Author: Herschel McDivitt. Indiana Division of Oil and Gas.  10/15/2014.

 

Hydraulic fracturing. Authors: Carl T. Montgomery and Michael B. Smith. JPT December 2010.

 

Chapter 2: Hydraulic Fracturing Analysis, Expert Panel Report: Bainbridge Township Subsurface Gas Invasion

 

Drilling & hydraulic fracturing. Global Version. April 2013. www.statoil.com

 

Fracturing Fluid Systems, H05667 07/13 Halliburton.

 

CleanStim™ Hydraulic Fracturing Fluid System, Halliburton

Hydraulic Fracturing Operations—Well Construction and Integrity Guidelines, API GUIDANCE DOCUMENT HF1FIRST EDITION, OCTOBER 2009

 

Alberta Energy Regulator https://www.aer.ca/documents/sts/ST98/ST98-2011.pdf

 

Chesapeake Energy Corporation www.chesapeake.com

Typicall sand used in hydraulic fracturing treatment as a proppant. Allaboutshale.com, shale handbook, about shale
Proppant used in hydraullic fracturing, ceramic, resin coated sand and sand. Allaboutshale.com, shale handbook.
Michigan Department of Environmental Quality website. Slurry blender, pump truck, proppant, van, Wellhead, Allaboutshale.com, shale handbook.
The hydration unit is responsible of hydrating the polymers and chemicals before being sent to the blender. It generally has a residence time of
Is the responsible of mix the chemicals, polymers and the proppant with the fracture fluid in specific quantities before being sent to the high-
to the hydraulic fracturing is used  pumps of high pressure and high flow rate, normally triplex or quintuplex, with power ranging from the 1300
the unit of data acquisition and control center has modern computers from where it is monitored, recorded, controlled and change all the paramet
parameters monitored are the viscosity of the fracturing fluid, proppant concentration, proppant rate, slurry rate, fluid rate and surface injec
Slurry rate, Blender Density and Pressure vs Time. Hydraullic fracturing. Allaboutshale.com, Emanuel Martin
Microseismic monitoring of a hydraulic fracture stimulation. Image courtesy of John Logel."
use the induced seismicity in new shale plays during the hydraulic fracturing, allowing know the real behavior of the fracture and calibrating
There are basically two possible ways to contaminate an aquifer and these are by filtering of chemicals spilled from the surface
Then starts the drilling following a program previously designed that we will divide into three parts: groundwater protection, insulation of the
We can see then that the aquifers of the area during the fracture operation and subsequent well productive life is protected by one or two
Nygaard, 2013. Examples of Federal and Pennsylvania State regulations driving reliable well construction and operation in the Marcellus Play
Chesapeake Energy Corporation, 2008. Allaboutshale.com shale handbook
Typicall sand used in hydraulic fracturing treatment as a proppant. Allaboutshale.com, shale handbook, about shale
Proppant used in hydraullic fracturing, ceramic, resin coated sand and sand. Allaboutshale.com, shale handbook.
Michigan Department of Environmental Quality website. Slurry blender, pump truck, proppant, van, Wellhead, Allaboutshale.com, shale handbook.
The hydration unit is responsible of hydrating the polymers and chemicals before being sent to the blender. It generally has a residence time of
Is the responsible of mix the chemicals, polymers and the proppant with the fracture fluid in specific quantities before being sent to the high-
to the hydraulic fracturing is used  pumps of high pressure and high flow rate, normally triplex or quintuplex, with power ranging from the 1300
the unit of data acquisition and control center has modern computers from where it is monitored, recorded, controlled and change all the paramet
parameters monitored are the viscosity of the fracturing fluid, proppant concentration, proppant rate, slurry rate, fluid rate and surface injec
Slurry rate, Blender Density and Pressure vs Time. Hydraullic fracturing. Allaboutshale.com, Emanuel Martin
Microseismic monitoring of a hydraulic fracture stimulation. Image courtesy of John Logel."
use the induced seismicity in new shale plays during the hydraulic fracturing, allowing know the real behavior of the fracture and calibrating
There are basically two possible ways to contaminate an aquifer and these are by filtering of chemicals spilled from the surface
Nygaard, 2013. Examples of Federal and Pennsylvania State regulations driving reliable well construction and operation in the Marcellus Play
Chesapeake Energy Corporation, 2008. Allaboutshale.com shale handbook
Proppant used in hydraullic fracturing, ceramic, resin coated sand and sand. Allaboutshale.com, shale handbook.
Michigan Department of Environmental Quality website. Slurry blender, pump truck, proppant, van, Wellhead, Allaboutshale.com, shale handbook.
The hydration unit is responsible of hydrating the polymers and chemicals before being sent to the blender. It generally has a residence time of
Is the responsible of mix the chemicals, polymers and the proppant with the fracture fluid in specific quantities before being sent to the high-
to the hydraulic fracturing is used  pumps of high pressure and high flow rate, normally triplex or quintuplex, with power ranging from the 1300
the unit of data acquisition and control center has modern computers from where it is monitored, recorded, controlled and change all the paramet
parameters monitored are the viscosity of the fracturing fluid, proppant concentration, proppant rate, slurry rate, fluid rate and surface injec
Slurry rate, Blender Density and Pressure vs Time. Hydraullic fracturing. Allaboutshale.com, Emanuel Martin
Microseismic monitoring of a hydraulic fracture stimulation. Image courtesy of John Logel."
use the induced seismicity in new shale plays during the hydraulic fracturing, allowing know the real behavior of the fracture and calibrating
There are basically two possible ways to contaminate an aquifer and these are by filtering of chemicals spilled from the surface
Then starts the drilling following a program previously designed that we will divide into three parts: groundwater protection, insulation of the
We can see then that the aquifers of the area during the fracture operation and subsequent well productive life is protected by one or two
Nygaard, 2013. Examples of Federal and Pennsylvania State regulations driving reliable well construction and operation in the Marcellus Play
Chesapeake Energy Corporation, 2008. Allaboutshale.com shale handbook
Typicall sand used in hydraulic fracturing treatment as a proppant. Allaboutshale.com, shale handbook, about shale
Proppant used in hydraullic fracturing, ceramic, resin coated sand and sand. Allaboutshale.com, shale handbook.
Michigan Department of Environmental Quality website. Slurry blender, pump truck, proppant, van, Wellhead, Allaboutshale.com, shale handbook.
The hydration unit is responsible of hydrating the polymers and chemicals before being sent to the blender. It generally has a residence time of
Is the responsible of mix the chemicals, polymers and the proppant with the fracture fluid in specific quantities before being sent to the high-
to the hydraulic fracturing is used  pumps of high pressure and high flow rate, normally triplex or quintuplex, with power ranging from the 1300
the unit of data acquisition and control center has modern computers from where it is monitored, recorded, controlled and change all the paramet
Slurry rate, Blender Density and Pressure vs Time. Hydraullic fracturing. Allaboutshale.com, Emanuel Martin
Microseismic monitoring of a hydraulic fracture stimulation. Image courtesy of John Logel."
use the induced seismicity in new shale plays during the hydraulic fracturing, allowing know the real behavior of the fracture and calibrating
There are basically two possible ways to contaminate an aquifer and these are by filtering of chemicals spilled from the surface
Then starts the drilling following a program previously designed that we will divide into three parts: groundwater protection, insulation of the
Nygaard, 2013. Examples of Federal and Pennsylvania State regulations driving reliable well construction and operation in the Marcellus Play
Chesapeake Energy Corporation, 2008. Allaboutshale.com shale handbook
Typicall sand used in hydraulic fracturing treatment as a proppant. Allaboutshale.com, shale handbook, about shale
Proppant used in hydraullic fracturing, ceramic, resin coated sand and sand. Allaboutshale.com, shale handbook.
Michigan Department of Environmental Quality website. Slurry blender, pump truck, proppant, van, Wellhead, Allaboutshale.com, shale handbook.
The hydration unit is responsible of hydrating the polymers and chemicals before being sent to the blender. It generally has a residence time of
Is the responsible of mix the chemicals, polymers and the proppant with the fracture fluid in specific quantities before being sent to the high-
to the hydraulic fracturing is used  pumps of high pressure and high flow rate, normally triplex or quintuplex, with power ranging from the 1300
the unit of data acquisition and control center has modern computers from where it is monitored, recorded, controlled and change all the paramet
parameters monitored are the viscosity of the fracturing fluid, proppant concentration, proppant rate, slurry rate, fluid rate and surface injec
Slurry rate, Blender Density and Pressure vs Time. Hydraullic fracturing. Allaboutshale.com, Emanuel Martin
Microseismic monitoring of a hydraulic fracture stimulation. Image courtesy of John Logel."
use the induced seismicity in new shale plays during the hydraulic fracturing, allowing know the real behavior of the fracture and calibrating
There are basically two possible ways to contaminate an aquifer and these are by filtering of chemicals spilled from the surface
Then starts the drilling following a program previously designed that we will divide into three parts: groundwater protection, insulation of the
We can see then that the aquifers of the area during the fracture operation and subsequent well productive life is protected by one or two
Nygaard, 2013. Examples of Federal and Pennsylvania State regulations driving reliable well construction and operation in the Marcellus Play
Chesapeake Energy Corporation, 2008. Allaboutshale.com shale handbook
Typicall sand used in hydraulic fracturing treatment as a proppant. Allaboutshale.com, shale handbook, about shale
Proppant used in hydraullic fracturing, ceramic, resin coated sand and sand. Allaboutshale.com, shale handbook.
Michigan Department of Environmental Quality website. Slurry blender, pump truck, proppant, van, Wellhead, Allaboutshale.com, shale handbook.
The hydration unit is responsible of hydrating the polymers and chemicals before being sent to the blender. It generally has a residence time of
Is the responsible of mix the chemicals, polymers and the proppant with the fracture fluid in specific quantities before being sent to the high-
to the hydraulic fracturing is used  pumps of high pressure and high flow rate, normally triplex or quintuplex, with power ranging from the 1300
the unit of data acquisition and control center has modern computers from where it is monitored, recorded, controlled and change all the paramet
parameters monitored are the viscosity of the fracturing fluid, proppant concentration, proppant rate, slurry rate, fluid rate and surface injec
Slurry rate, Blender Density and Pressure vs Time. Hydraullic fracturing. Allaboutshale.com, Emanuel Martin
Microseismic monitoring of a hydraulic fracture stimulation. Image courtesy of John Logel."
use the induced seismicity in new shale plays during the hydraulic fracturing, allowing know the real behavior of the fracture and calibrating
There are basically two possible ways to contaminate an aquifer and these are by filtering of chemicals spilled from the surface
We can see then that the aquifers of the area during the fracture operation and subsequent well productive life is protected by one or two
Nygaard, 2013. Examples of Federal and Pennsylvania State regulations driving reliable well construction and operation in the Marcellus Play
Chesapeake Energy Corporation, 2008. Allaboutshale.com shale handbook
Typicall sand used in hydraulic fracturing treatment as a proppant. Allaboutshale.com, shale handbook, about shale
Proppant used in hydraullic fracturing, ceramic, resin coated sand and sand. Allaboutshale.com, shale handbook.
Michigan Department of Environmental Quality website. Slurry blender, pump truck, proppant, van, Wellhead, Allaboutshale.com, shale handbook.
The hydration unit is responsible of hydrating the polymers and chemicals before being sent to the blender. It generally has a residence time of
Is the responsible of mix the chemicals, polymers and the proppant with the fracture fluid in specific quantities before being sent to the high-
to the hydraulic fracturing is used  pumps of high pressure and high flow rate, normally triplex or quintuplex, with power ranging from the 1300
the unit of data acquisition and control center has modern computers from where it is monitored, recorded, controlled and change all the paramet
parameters monitored are the viscosity of the fracturing fluid, proppant concentration, proppant rate, slurry rate, fluid rate and surface injec
Slurry rate, Blender Density and Pressure vs Time. Hydraullic fracturing. Allaboutshale.com, Emanuel Martin
Microseismic monitoring of a hydraulic fracture stimulation. Image courtesy of John Logel."
use the induced seismicity in new shale plays during the hydraulic fracturing, allowing know the real behavior of the fracture and calibrating
There are basically two possible ways to contaminate an aquifer and these are by filtering of chemicals spilled from the surface
Then starts the drilling following a program previously designed that we will divide into three parts: groundwater protection, insulation of the
We can see then that the aquifers of the area during the fracture operation and subsequent well productive life is protected by one or two
Nygaard, 2013. Examples of Federal and Pennsylvania State regulations driving reliable well construction and operation in the Marcellus Play
Chesapeake Energy Corporation, 2008. Allaboutshale.com shale handbook